Intelligence and Counterintelligence
Observers over the years have provided many definitions for the term "intelligence." Many of these definitions are burdensome, or technical, or drawn directly from the term of art. Intelligence is simply information, gathered however necessary and arranged in such fashion as to be of use to those who require it. In foreign policy (and national defense) intelligence guides the hands of policymakers and helps them conduct relations wisely. (However, there are aspects of intelligence that can be obstacles to wise policy.) Foreign policy without intelligence can succeed, but at greater cost and difficulty than well-informed initiatives. In American foreign policy, at least since the end of World War II, there has been a conscious effort to harness intelligence in service of national goals.
Andrew, Christopher. For the President's Eyes Only: Secret Intelligence and the American Presidency from Washington to Bush. New York, 1995.
Bamford, James. Body of Secrets: Anatomy of the Ultra-Secret National Security Agency from the Cold War Through the Dawn of a New Century. New York, 2001.
Brugioni, Dino A. Eyeball to Eyeball: The Inside Story of the Cuban Missile Crisis. New York, 1991.
Gates, Robert M. From the Shadows: The Ultimate Insider's Story of Five Presidents and How They Won the Cold War. New York, 1996.
Kent, Sherman. Strategic Intelligence for American World Policy. Princeton, N.J., 1949.
Peebles, Curtis. The Corona Project: America's First Spy Satellites. Annapolis, Md., 1997.
Prados, John. The Soviet Estimate: U.S. Intelligence Analysis and Soviet Strategic Forces. Princeton, N.J., 1986.
——. President's Secret Wars: CIA and Pentagon Covert Operations from World War II Through the Persian Gulf War. Chicago, 1996.
Richelson, Jeffrey T. The U.S. Intelligence Community. 4th ed. Boulder, Colo., 1999.