Berenice A. Carroll
"Peacemaking" appears to be a commonplace term, easily understood and frequently used in public discourse and in peace movements. The Internet reports more than 50,000 entries containing the term "peacemaking." On closer examination, it is much more elusive. Dictionaries define it tautologically as "the making of peace"; standard encyclopedias do not recognize it as a topic for separate entry (though it does appear in two encyclopedias of peace); and there is surprisingly little on "peacemaking" in academic texts on international politics.
Where it does appear, the term "peacemaking" is used primarily in four senses:
- Settlement or termination of a war or dispute by explicit agreement among the belligerent parties or others ("peace settlements").
- The process of transition from hostility to amity, or from war to peace ("ending hostilities and preferably also resolving the active issues of war"), with or without explicit agreement.
- The development of procedures and institutions to facilitate conflict resolution, or termination or prevention of wars or conflicts ("pacific settlement of disputes").
- Efforts to create the foundations or conditions for lasting peace ("peacebuilding").
Bell, Christine. Peace Agreements and Human Rights. New York, 2000.
Boulding, Elise. Building a Global Civic Culture: Education for an Interdependent World. Syracuse, N.Y., 1990.
Brown, Dee. Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee: An Indian History of the American West. New York, 1971.
Caplow, Theodore. Peace Games. Middletown, Conn., 1989.
Carroll, Berenice A. "How Wars End: An Analysis of Some Current Hypotheses." Journal of Peace Research (December 1969): 295–320.
——. "War Termination and Conflict Theory: Value Premises, Theory, and Policies." Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 392 (November 1970): 14–29.
Challinor, Joan R., and Robert L. Beisner, eds. Arms at Rest: Peacemaking and Peacekeeping in American History. New York, 1987.
Daffern, Thomas Clough. "Peacemaking and Peacebuilding." In Lester Kurtz and Jennifer Turpin, eds. Encyclopedia of Violence, Peace, and Conflict. Vol. 2. San Diego, 1999.
Deloria, Vine, Jr. Behind the Trail of Broken Treaties: An Indian Declaration of Independence. Austin, Tex., 1985.
Diamond, Louise, and John McDonald. Multi-Track Diplomacy: A Systems Approach to Peace. 3d ed. West Hartford, Conn., 1996.
Elias, Robert, and Jennifer Turpin, eds. Rethinking Peace. Boulder, Colo., 1994.
Fox, William T. R., ed. How Wars End. Special issue of Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 392 (November 1970).
Goldstein, Erik. Wars and Peace Treaties: 1816–1991. London, 1992.
Hampson, Fen Osler. Nurturing Peace: Why Peace a Settlements Succeed or Fail. Washington, D.C., 1996.
Ikenberry, G. John. After Victory: Institutions, Strategic Restraint, and the Rebuilding of Order After Major Wars. Princeton, N.J., 2001.
Ireton, Steven W. "Conflict Resolution and Indian Treaties on the American Indian Frontier, 1730–1768." Ph.D. dissertation. University of California at Santa Barbara, 1988.
Jackson, Helen Hunt. A Century of Dishonor: A Sketch of the United States Government's Dealings with Some of the Indian Tribes. 2d ed. Boston, 1885.
Jaimes, M. Annette, ed. The State of Native America: Genocide, Colonization, and Resistance. Boston, 1992.
Karsh, Efraim, and Gregory Mahler, eds. Israel at the Crossroads: The Challenge of Peace. New York, 1994.
Kegley, Charles W., Jr., and Gregory A. Raymond. How Nations Make Peace. New York, 1999.
Kurtz, Lester, and Jennifer Turpin, eds. Encyclopedia of Violence, Peace, and Conflict. Vol. 2. San Diego, 1999.
Lederach, John Paul. Building Peace: Sustainable Reconciliation in Divided Societies. Washington, D.C., 1997.
Mayer, Arno J. Politics and Diplomacy of Peacemaking: Containment and Counter-revolution at Versailles 1918–1919. New York, 1967.
Morris, Richard B. The Peacemakers: The Great Powers and American Independence. New York, 1965.
Nicolson, Harold. Peacemaking, 1919. New York, 1965.
Otunnu, Olara A., and Michael W. Doyle, eds. Peacemaking and Peacekeeping for the New Century. Lanham, Md., 1998.
Pauling, Linus, Ervin Laszlo, and Jong Youl Yoo, eds. World Encyclopedia of Peace. Vol. 2. Oxford, 1986.
Phillipson, Coleman. Termination of War and Treaties of Peace. London, 1916.
Pillar, Paul R. Negotiating Peace: War Termination as a Bargaining Process. Princeton, N.J., 1983.
Powers, Gerard F., Drew Christiansen, and Robert T. Hennemeyer, eds. Peacemaking: Moral and Policy Challenges for a New World. Washington, D.C., 1994.
Randle, Robert F. The Origins of Peace: A Study of Peacemaking and the Structure of Peace Settlements. New York, 1973.
Regan, Patrick M. Organizing Societies for War: The Process and Consequences of Societal Militarization. Westport, Conn., 1994.
Rupesinghe, Kumar, with Sanam Naraghi Anderlini. Civil Wars, Civil Peace: An Introduction to Conflict Resolution. London, 1998.
Smith, David S., ed. From War to Peace: Essays in Peacemaking and War Termination. New York, 1974.
Smith, James D. D. Stopping Wars: Defining the Obstacles to Cease-fire. Boulder, Colo., 1995.
Stiffarm, Lenore A., with Phil Lane, Jr. "The Demography of Native North America: A Question of American Indian Survival." In M. Annette Jaimes, ed. The State of Native America: Genocide, Colonization, and Resistance. Boston, 1992.
Stone, Julius. Legal Controls of International Conflict: A Treatise on the Dynamics of Disputesand War-Law. New York, 1959.
United Nations. Handbook on the Peaceful Settlement of Disputes Between States. New York, 1992.
Woodhouse, Tom, ed. Peacemaking in a Troubled World. New York, 1991.
Woodhouse, Tom, Robert Bruce, and Malcolm Dando, eds. Peacekeeping and Peacemaking: Towards Effective Intervention in Post-Cold War Conflicts. New York, 1998.
Wright, Quincy. A Study of War. 2d ed. Chicago, 1965.
Zartman, I. William, and J. Lewis Rasmussen, eds. Peacemaking in International Conflict: Methods & Techniques. Washington, D.C., 1997.
See also Alliances, Coalitions, and Ententes ; Arbitration, Mediation, and Conciliation ; Dissent in Wars ; Gender ; Intervention and Nonintervention ; Pacifism ; Peace Movements ; Race and Ethnicity ; Treaties .