Intervention and Nonintervention

Doris A. Graber

Analysis of the intervention and nonintervention theories and practices of the United States requires examination of four distinct facets of the issue. They are the theory underlying the use of intervention in international relations, the policy doctrines proclaimed by the United States regarding intervention, the international law regarding the legality of intervention, and the actual practice of intervention adopted by the United States.


Brown, Michael E., ed. The International Dimensions of Internal Conflict. Cambridge, Mass., 1996. Claims that deadly internal conflicts threaten dozens of countries and major regions around the world.

Brune, Lester H. The United States and Post-Cold War Interventions: Bush and Clinton in Somalia, Haiti and Bosnia, 1992–1998. Claremont, Calif., 1998. Presents fairly detailed chronologies of events in these three interventions.

Bull, Hedley, ed. Intervention in World Politics. Oxford and New York, 1984. Based on a series of 1983 lectures at Oxford University about sovereignty and international relations and law.

Chayes, Antonia Handler, and Abram Chayes. Planning for Intervention: International Cooperation in Conflict Management. The Hague and Boston, 1999. Offers a new strategy for the world community's handling of intervention into internal state conflicts.

Chopra, Jarat, and Thomas G. Weiss. "Sovereignty Is No Longer Sacrosanct: Codifying Humanitarian Intervention." Ethics and International Affairs 6 (1992).

Clarke, Walter, and Jeffrey Herbst, eds. Learning from Somalia: The Lessons of Armed Humanitarian Intervention. Boulder, Colo., 1997. Deals with peacemaking problems, such as rebuilding the economy, and with the relationship between the military and nongovernmental organizations.

Franck, Thomas. "The Emerging Right to Democratic Governance." American Journal of International Law 86 (1992). Discusses an international trend toward considering democracy a legal right that entails international legal obligations.

Freedman, Lawrence, ed. Strategic Coercion: Concepts and Cases. Oxford and New York, 1998. Argues for a reappraisal of the role of strategic coercion by drawing on the experiences of countries other than the United States.

Freedman, Lawrence, and Efraim Karsh. The Gulf Conflict 1990–1991: Diplomacy and War in the New World Order. Princeton, N.J., 1993.

Frenderschub, Helmut. "Between Universalism and Collective Security: Authorisation for the Use of Force by the UN Security Council." European Journal of International Law 5 (1994).

Gilboa, Eytan. "The Panama Invasion Revisited: Lessons for the Use of Force in the Post Cold War Era." Political Science Quarterly 110 (1995–1996).

Goodpaster, Andrew J. When Diplomacy Is Not Enough: Managing Multinational Interventions. New York, 1996. Analyzes the difficult problems encountered when interventions involve multiple governmental and nongovernmental organizations.

Haass, Richard N. Intervention: The Use of American Military Force in the Post–Cold War World. Washington, D.C., 1994. Discusses U.S. intervention in Haiti, Bosnia, and Iraq and nonintervention in genocide activities in Central Africa.

Hippel, Karin von. Democracy by Force: U.S. Military Intervention in the Post–Cold War World. Cambridge and New York, 2000. Focuses on U.S. interventions that were followed by nation-building efforts in Panama, Somalia, Haiti, and Bosnia.

Hoffman, Stanley. "The Politics and Ethics of Military Intervention." Survival 37 (winter 1995–1996).

Joes, Anthony James, ed. Saving Democracies: U.S. Intervention in Threatened Democratic States. Westport, Conn., 1999. Covers multiple interventions over much of the twentieth century.

Kanter, Arnold, and Linton F. Brooks, eds. U.S. Intervention Policy for the Post–Cold War World: New Challenges and New Responses. New York, 1994.

Lepgold, Joseph, and Thomas G. Weiss, eds. Collective Conflict Management and Changing World Politics. Albany, N.Y., 1998. Examines the prospects for collective management of international conflict in the post–Cold War.

Livingston, Steven, and Todd Eachus. "Humanitarian Crisis and U.S. Foreign Policy: Somalia and the CNN Effect Reconsidered." Political Communication 12 (1995): 413–429.

Mansfield, Edward D., and Jack Snyder. "Democratization and the Danger of War." International Security 20 (summer 1995).

Maynes, Charles William. "Relearning Intervention." Foreign Policy (spring 1995).

Moore, John Norton. Law and the Grenada Mission. Charlottesville, Va., and Washington, D.C., 1984.

Murphy, Sean D. Humanitarian Intervention: The United Nations in an Evolving World Order. Philadelphia, 1996. Analyzes the law as it applies to humanitarian interventions, especially when the United Nations becomes involved.

Pasic, Amir, and Thomas G. Weiss. "The Politics of Rescue: Yugoslavia's Wars and the Humanitarian Impulse." Ethics and International Affairs 11 (1997).

Robinson, William I. Promoting Polyarchy: Globalization, U.S. Intervention, and Hegemony. Cambridge and New York, 1996. Provides a view of intervention policies from a less conventional perspective.

Sassen, Saskia. Losing Control?: Sovereignty in an Age of Globalization. New York, 1996.

Weiss, Thomas G. Military-Civilian Interactions: Intervening in Humanitarian Crises. Lanham, Md., 1999.

Zartman, I. William, ed. Collapsed States: The Disintegration and Restoration of Legitimate Authority. Boulder, Colo., 1995. Case studies of problems in African states.

See also Blockades ; Collective Security ; Containment ; Covert Operations ; Doctrines ; Economic Policy and Theory ; Embargoes and Sanctions ; Human Rights ; Humanitarian Intervention and Relief ; Imperialism ; International Law ; The National Interest ; Oil ; Protection of American Citizens Abroad ; Recognition ; Revolution ; The Vietnam War .

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